History of a drop water
To trace the beginnings of this engrossing story of the city and it's salty waters spanning a 1000 years one needs to travel back 270 million years, to the Upper Permian Period. Around that time there was a shallow sea basin in this area with a sub-tropical climate still prevalent today.
The rock salt deposits that were formed in the basin are up to 1000m thick in the region. Over the next 200 million years these deposits were covered during numerous climatic changes. The rock salt was covered by other seabed deposits and rocks from the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. New sediments were still being formed in the Tertiary period some 65 million years ago. There creation was also being un-done by erosive processes resulting from Kolobrzeg's location in a tectonic zone, at the interface of two large European tectonic plates and from the phenomenon know as “ halakinesis” or the up-lifting of salt masses. These factors resulted in the undulation and cracking of the rocks below Kolobrzeg and the surrounding region.
Approximately 2.5 million years ago, at the beginning of the Quaternary period, the climate became cooler and about 1 million years ago the first glaciers from Scandinavia reached this area. The last of these glaciers only receded 10,000 years ago. This period of glaciation transformed the land relief of the region beyond recognition. The rocks formed in the Tertiary and Cretaceous periods were destroyed and the crushed Jurassic rocks were covered with a 40m thick layer of post-glacial residue. Due to the creation of the Baltic sea basin and the moraine hills in Pojezierze Drawskie, the southern inclination of the region was reversed, instead of the waters running to the south of the region, they ran north towards the Baltic sea. The glaciers that repeatedly advanced and receded over the next 10,000 years also triggered rock movement (glaciotectonics) and additional cracking below the Kolobrzeg area. At the end of the ice age and after the final disappearance of the last of the glaciers the “white gold” of Kolobrzeg- brine and mineral waters started to pour out of these cracks and fissures.
The “Kolobrzeg” deposit is located within a large geological unit described as the “Pomeranian para- anticline”. The northern section of the zones can be divided into two elevations: the western anticline of Kamien Pomorski and the eastern anticline of Kolobrzeg, separated by Trzebiatowa syncline. Under the 40m thick quaternary formations lie Jurassic and Quaternary formations.
Fresh water around Kolobrzeg is virtually non-existent, near surface water suspended from rainfall is the only source.
Inter clay aquifers which are in contact with the groundwater are characterized by salinity and have a higher hydrostatic pressure then the surrounding groundwater. Cracks and fissures related to the sub-quaternary anticline facilitate migration towards the groundwater. This in turn is the cause of the salinity of quaternary waters. This maybe the cause of shallow springs with a mineral content similar to that of Jurassic waters along the Parsete river valley as well as the occurrence of natural outpourings of brine waters.
Kolobrzeg's waters are relic waters; the age of the water with a specific mineral content was identified by Krawiec and Zuber et al, in 2002 and 2007 respectively.
Intakes (the sources of the waters) 16a (Perła) and 39 (Jantar) are waters from the glacial period at least 9,800 years ago. Other intakes are waters from before the Quaternary period at least 2 million years ago.
Research into the flow patterns of the groundwater by A. Krawiec 2002, confirmed the earlier assumptions that the water is replenished within the very ecologically clean Western Pomerania moraine Plateau near Polczyn-Zdroj (50-100 khm to the south) Later, the water passes through Kenosoic and Jurassic deposits towards the north and the drainage areas of the coastal lowland.
The water becomes rich in minerals whist in the layers of Jurassic deposits, where it is mixed with water from the Triassic period which flows from below, which also has a high mineral content.
The Triassic waters owe their mineral content to the process of Permian salt leaching. Vertical fissures, tectonic shifts and glaciotectonic rocks with a meridional layout facilitate the flow of the groundwater.
The specific nature of the water in the Kolobrzeg area results from their natural outpourings onto the surface under artesian pressure, as well as from their unique chemical composition which is a result of the waters contact with Permian salts within the Kolobrzeg anticline zone over it's 40 year journey from that drop of water!
It is worth remembering that these treasures were created as a result of long-lasting processes and a delicate balance within nature. They became the basis for the developments of Kolobrzeg as a Spa resort in the years that followed. This balance is extremely fragile, so reckless human activity may easily damage the source and Kolobrzeg's valuable resource. We here at Jantar Premium Mineral Water along with the residents are guardians of this treasure, respecting them and preserving them for future generations not only for Kolobrzeg, but the world as a whole.